Abdul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Padshah Ghazi aka Aurangzeb was the greatest and 6 th Mughal Emperor of all the time but only after the Akbar the great as claimed to the accompanying of drums by the pseudo secular Indian historians. He ruled from 1658 to 1707. Although he was a great winner throughout his wretched life he was a bad and notorious emperor apart from being a religious bigot who set destruction of his own empire and illustrious dynasty into motion by his ill conceived policies. Although he was claimed to be a pious and holy Qoran bound Mussalman and lived pious life as stated by the guided Indian historians, he was full of all negative qualities and he was the manifestation of religious intolerance that finally resulted in destruction of Mughal Empire. To some extent, Mir Osman Ali Khan, the Nizam 7 of Hyderabad state could be compared to him in the matters of simplicity of dress and persecution of Hindus through Razakars during 1947-48 till he was deposed by police action. Although he was a great achiever by no mean standards as claimed by historians, the way he ruled was most outrageous and unworthy of an emperor. He alienated every one probably except sadistic fundamentalist Mullahs who failed to convert India into Dar ul Islam. Some of Aurangzeb’s shameful deeds are :
1.Aurangazeb‘s act of pseudo greatness began in 1644 when Aurangzeb’s sister Jahanara Begum was accidentally burned in Agra. This event precipitated a family crisis which had political consequences. Aurangzeb suffered his father’s displeasure when he returned to Agra three weeks after the event, instead of immediately on hearing of the accident.
2. In 1652, Aurangzeb was re-appointed governor of the Deccan. The Deccan produced poor tax revenue for the Mughals. In his previous term, Aurangzeb ignored the problem, allowing state-sanctioned corruption and extortion to grow. This time Aurangzeb set about reforming the system, but his efforts often placed additional burdens on the locals and were poorly received.
3. It was during this second governorship that Aurangzeb first recounts destroying a Hindu temple.
4.. Dara shikoh true successor of Shah Jahan was illegally dethroned by Aurangazeb. With the help of his younger brother Murad, Aurangzeb attacked Dara shikoh and defeated him and he declared Dara shikoh was no longer a Muslim. Dara shikoh was betrayed by an Afghan Chief to the Mughals and brought to Delhi on 23 August 1659.. Dar Shikoh was the most learned man of Hindu scriptures and wrote translations of some Upanishads. He was great Sufi in fact. Before Dara was killed, he was paraded on a dirty elephant on the streets so that people saw him and understood that their most liked prince was no more in reckoning. Dara was executed on 30 August 1659.
5) After getting rid of Dara by engineering death sentence through the Mullahs, Aurangzeb betrayed his younger brother Murad by arresting him after intoxicating him and later executed his own brother on 4 December 1661 on a frivolous murder charge of elimination Diwan Al Naqwi.
6. Sulaiman Shikoh the eldest son of Dara shukoh was also captured after betrayal by a provincial king and he was administered slow poison and he died in May 1662.
7) He executed Dara Shikoh in Delhi on 30 August 1659 and sent Dara’s severed head to Shah Jahan who was under house arrest.
8) He brought prohibitions against building new Hindu temples, and protection tax on non Muslims. He destroyed most precious Hindu temples at Gujarat, Kashi and Mathura. Probably breaking Hindu temples was his best hobby.
9) Aurangzeb began to enact and enforce a series of edicts with punishments. Most significantly, Aurangzeb initiated laws which interfered with non-Muslim worship. These included the destruction of several temples (mostly Hindu), a prohibition of certain religious gatherings, collection of the jizya tax, the closing of non-Islamic religious schools, and prohibition of practices deemed immoral by him, such as temple dances
10)He executed Guru Tegh bahadur in 1675, one of the most revered among Sikhs by framing false charges. ( He was the father of last Guru Gobind Singh who converted Sikhs into a martial race). He brought untold miseries on Guru Gobind Singh where sons of Sikh guru Guru Gobind Singh were killed. Two sons of him died in war while fighting along with his father and two were bricked alive most cruelly at Sirhind by Governor Wazir Khan of Sirhind.
11) In economic and political terms, Aurangzeb’s rule significantly favored Muslims over non-Muslims:” In many disputed successions for hereditary local office Aurangzeb chose candidates who had converted to Islam over their rivals. Pargana headmen and quangos or record keepers were targeted especially for pressure to convert. The message was very clear for all concerned. Shared political community must also be sharing religious belief.”
12) The Pashtun revolted against Aurangzeb in 1672 that was triggered when soldiers under the orders of the Mughal Governor Amir Khan attempted to molest women of the Safi tribe. The policies of Governors can not be different from that of the emperor.
13) He alienated many of his children and wives, driving some into exile and imprisoning others. When his son Akbar revolted against him in 1681 while fighting against the Rajputs during the war of succession after the death of Rana Jaswant Singh of Marwar on 10 December,1678, Aurangzeb played most dirty by writing a letter and ensuring that it fell into the hands of Rajputs thus driving a wedge between his son and Rajputs. This was the dirtiest act. Akbar finally left India and stayed in Persia fearing his father where he subsequently died unsung and unheard in 1704.
14. Aurangzeb also imprisoned his eldest son Mohammed Sultan to whom the princes of Golconda was married. The poor prince died in captivity in 1676. He thought his sons were danger to his power. He was the most cruel and treacherous father infact.
15. He conquered Golconda kingdom in Deccan ( South India) in 1687. Abdullah Pani a small time fort commander opened a small gate at fort wall in the early hours of 21 September 1687 after getting bribed and the fort soon fell.
16. After the fall of Golconda kingdom in Deccan, its king Sultan Abul Hasan Kutubshah ( 1672-1687) was imprisoned at Kaula Mahal in Daulatabad ( Maharashtra State) fort and was pensioned off. During his captivity, it is learnt that his wife gave birth to a son and this boy was subsequently taken to Delhi where he was taken care of. Abul Hassan Kutub Shaha died in 1699-1700. Many Kutubshai nobles took service in Mughal court and whenever the Deccani Prince entered the court, the nobles rose and paid respects. This however annoyed the emperor. To ensure that there was no chance for revival of Kutubshahi kingdom at a later stage, he sent the prince to Gwalior where he was administered opium regularly as a slow poison and the poor prince died in oblivion. The prince was called Bandi ( Prisoner) Sultan. ( There is no written proof available for this and is based on a popular belief and probably could be true considering the qualities of the emperor)
17. He invited the great Shivaji Maharaja to the court in May 1666 and insulted him and later imprisoned him at Agra. It is a different thing that Shivaji cleverly escaped from the house arrest at Agra and reached his capital on 30 November 1666 and led a crusade against Mughal in subsequent years.
18. He got killed Sambhaji Maharaja the Maratha King ( Son of Shivaji Maharaja) most inhumanly after capturing him on 11 February 1689.. He forced him to convert to Islam and Sambhaji preferred death than to shed his faith.He was put to death on 16 March 1689 in a most gruesome way. He kept Sahu, Sambhajis son as captive at his palace. Sahu was released only after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 by the next emperor ( Muazzam) Bahadurshah I as an act of reconciliation with Marathas and to divide the Marathas in the war of succession in their kingdom.
19. He dismissed court singers and painters and artists.
20 . He got white washed most precious and great paintings in the palace of Bijapur ( Now in state of Karnataka) in Deccan after its capture and deposing the ruler Sikander Adil Shah in September 1688.All such great art was lost forever.
On death bed, he wrote to his son, fully exhausted, “I came alone and I go as a stranger. I do not know who I am, nor what I have been doing,” the dying old man confessed to his son in Feb 1707. “I have sinned terribly, and I do not know what punishment awaits me.” At the ebb of his life, he expressed his loneliness and perhaps a regret for his militant intolerant rule. His personal piety is undeniable. Unlike the often alcohol- and women-absorbed personal lives of his predecessors, he led an extremely simple and pious life. He followed Muslim precepts with his typical determination, and even memorized the entire Qur’an. He knitted haj caps and copied out the Qur’an throughout his life and sold these anonymously. He used only the proceeds from these to fund his modest resting place. He died in Ahmednagar on Friday, February 20 1707 at the age of 88, having outlived many of his children. His modest open-air grave in Khuldabad in Aurangabad expresses his strict and deep interpretation of Islamic beliefs.
Repentance in the end does not change history. It may draw sympathy from the almighty as per scriptures. In practical life, such repentance has no meaning when he inflicted such damage on the people and nation particularly Hindus. The later Mughals were wretched incompetent and worthless womanizers, morally corrupt debauches, sexual perverts and drunkards. It is most astonishing to note that in a span of 150 years after death of Aurangzeb in 1707 Mughal dynasty could not produce a single competent and worthy ruler who could restore the Mughal power. Was it a curse from the Allah who desired destruction of the dynasty and empire too? Naturally such rulers have no place. None should feel sorry for their tragic end. They surely deserved such fate.
Some one said the grave of Aurangzeb at Khuldabad in Aurangabad (Maharashtra State) is the most deserted and haunting one and any one visiting the site would suffer heart pain, headache and nausea and discomfort even to day after the death of the tyrant in 1707. This may be exaggerated. The soul of emperor who played tricks and dirty politics all his life and killed his own brothers and ill-treated his father for the kingship cannot rest in peace. Many saw him as manifestation of Satan although Indian bogus historians praise him as a Raja yogi ( Saint King) and true Muslim to appease the Muslims in India with eye on vote bank of Muslims. The Indian history books hide all his atrocities on his subjects particularly Hindus by direction and to earn awards from the pseudo secularists. His life was tarnished by scores of Brahmins killed by him. He was probably the biggest and cruelest Sunni Wahhabi on the earth although Wahabism was found later on. He was against all Kafirs and destroyed temples and deserves severe condemnation in the view of most of the people. His deeds have naturally led to fall of his own dynasty. Just note the fate of his worthless descendents. Is it an act of punishment by God?But Indian Historians look other way and clap that al was well with him. Shame indeed.
THE LIST OF CALAMITIES DURING RULE OF LATER MUGHALS
1. Muazzam titled Bahadur shah I( 1707-1712) I his son and who became emperor died with in 5 years of his rule. He killed his brother in the war of succession…… 5 years
2. Moizuddin Zahandarshah ( 1712-1713) son of Bahadur Shah I a debauch and was the most incompetent man to rule. He was overwhelmed by a concubine Lal kumari. His brothers were also slain in the war of succession. He was strangled after he was deposed within one year of rule by Farukhsiyar and his head was cut off and sent for display….. 1 year rule
3. Muhammed Farukhsiyar ( 1713- 1719) a great grand son of Aurangzeb ( Son of Azimus shan, brother of Zahandar shah) became emperor. He was deposed and blinded and imprisoned. He was killed in the most cruelest manner by the Sayyad brothers, the king makers. 6 years ruled.
4. Rafi ud Darjat (1719) son of Rafis us shan brother of Jahandar Shah who was killed in war of succession. He died in the same year of accession 1719 ( obviously murdered).. with in year
5. Rafi ud Ddaula ( Shah jehan II) ( 1719) son of Rafis us shan brother of Jahandar Shah who was killed in war of succession. He died in the same year of accession i.e 1719( Obviously murdered)… within year same year as above
6. Mohd Ibrahim (1720) son of Rafiq us shan. Died soon
6. Muhammed Shah Rangeela ( pleasure seeker) ( 1719-1748) ( Roshan Akhtar) son of Jahan shah the brother of Jahander shah the biggest pleasure seeker and womanizer .He died of cirrhosis of liver and also syphilis.. Nadir Shah the Persian king invaded Delhi during his time. 29 years rule
7. Ahmed Shah (1748- 1754) was blinded by his wazir Ghaziuddin in 1754… 6 years
8.. Azizuddin Alamgir II (1754 — 1759) son of Jahander shah was assassinated by Gaziuddin.. 5 years
9. Shah Jehan III (1960), grandson of Kambaksh the son of Aurangzeb. Three months
10.Mirza Abdullah Shah Alam II also known as Ali Gauhar ( 1759-1806) was blinded in 1788 by Afgahn Rohilla chieftain and the staunch enemy of Mughals after having failed to find Mughal treasures and Shah Alam II lived pathetic life and died ( Although a nominal emperor..47 years
11. Bidar Bakht ( 1788).
12.Akbar II son of Shah Alam II ( 1806 –1837) nominal emperor remained in Delhi unsung and un heard…31 years
13,Bahadur Shah II ( zafar) ( 1836-1858) was deposed by East India Company in 1858 after the Sepoy mutiny. He was sent to Rangoon prison where he died in 1862………22 years rule
DYNASTY WAS EXTINGUISHED
Above list does not reflect well for the dynasty of brave Baber. The untold crimes committed by Aurangzeb on humanity, other religions and on his own brothers and father during his long reign have not gone down well with the unknown power called the God and his successors paid heavy price in course of time. There have been dynasties earlier that vanished after wars. But later Mughals no doubt suffered continuously and as said earlier, it could not produce even one able ruler to turn the tide. It has to be seen as the curse of humanity (Particularly Hindus?) in India on the Mughal dynasty during rule of Aurangzeb.
1.RC Majumdar, HC Roy Chaudhri, Kalikinakra Datta, An advanced History of India, Macmillan, London, 1967, III Edition,
2.Dr PV Ramachadra Rao, South Indian History, 1336-1765, Telugu Academy, Hyderabad, 1991,
3.Dr K Prabhakar Rao, Strategic studies into Muslim fundamentalism, its rise in India and its growing threat to India’s security across the borders. Ph D (Strategic studies) Thesis, TIU, USA, 2002
4.Todd, Annals of Rajasthan, Annals of Mewar, Allied publishers, Bombay and Calcutta,
5.V D Mahjan. Moghul rule in India, S Chand and Coy private Ltd. New Delhi, Edition 10, 1971
6. Sir Jadunath Sircar, History of Aurangzeb, Volume no V, Sircar and sons, Calcutta , 1919
7.A B Pandey, Later medieval India, 1520-1701, Central Book Depot, Allahabad, edition 3, 1995.
Note: Content of this blog post is writer’s personal opinion and may not be hinduawaken’s