In his chapter`Spread of Islam’ Jia Lal Kilam says in the book `Ancient and Medieval Kashmir’ edited by S.K.Sharma and S.R.Bakshi on page 332:
“Hassan further on says that “Sikandar meted out greatest oppression to the Hindus. It was notified in the city that if a Hindu does not become a Muslim, he must leave the country or be killed. As a result some of the Hindus fled away and some accepted Islam and many Brahmins consented to be killed and gave their lives. It is said that Sikandar collected by these methods about three khirwars (six maunds) of sacred threads (from Hindu converts) and burnt them. Hazrat Amir Kabir who was witness to all this orgy of brute passion and vandalism at last advised him to desist from slaughter of Brahmans, and told him to impose Jazia instead of death upon them. All the Hindu books of learning were collected and thrown into Dal Lake and were buried beneath stones and earth.” Governmental coercion coupled with brisk proselytising activities indulged in by the Muslim preachers and also the privileged position which the fresh converts received succeeded in bringing about a mass conversion.”
“Sikandar allowed Hindus to live only on payment of Jazia.” (p.333)
“When Zain-al-Abidin ascended the throne he found himself destined to rule both Hindus and Mohammedans. The Hindus had been reduced to the conventional number of “eleven families” during the reign of his two predecessors. Most of the existing Muslims were converted Hindus who had only entered the Muslim fold for fear of death. They did not seem to have been completely absorbed. The Sultan appears to have doubted their fidelity.” (p.327, ibid. (Indian History Congress Proceedings, 1941).
Two comets appeared in Kashmir in 1533 during Mohd. Shah’s reign. The appearance of a comet is an evil omen.(p.343)
compiled by A.L.Rawal, Associate Professor, DCAC, University of Delhi